Crusie: Conflict analysis
By Patricia Sargeant-Matthews
This article first appeared in the July 2001 issue
of Write from the Heart, the newsletter of
the Romance Writers of America Inc.®'s Central Ohio
Fiction Writers chapter.
"The core of a book is conflict," says Jennifer Crusie.
Jenny, a Loveswept, Harlequin Temptation and St. Martin's
Press author, discussed conflict analysis and plotting
during the June 2001 Central Ohio Fiction Writers
Setting the goals
"You can have marvelous characters," Jenny says. "But
without a plot, it's just a character study, not a
Protagonist: The protagonist is the person
who owns the book. In romance novels, this character
is usually the heroine. The writer must determine
the protagonist's internal and external goals. These
goals have to be concrete and achievable.
Antagonist: "The antagonist is not a bad guy,
necessarily," Jenny explains. "The antagonist is the
person who pushes back." Just like the protagonist,
the antagonist must have a full life of his or her
own with internal and external goals.
"The antagonist is not out to get the protagonist,"
Jenny says. That type of plot is too thin.
Internal and external personal goals for your characters
provide a stronger, more complex plot. The conflict
is a life or death struggle between the protagonist
and the antagonist. The protagonist's goal must cause
a problem for the antagonist's goal and vice versa.
Neither character can resign from the fight.
For example, let's say we're writing a book and our
protagonist is a member of a wildlife conservancy
group and our antagonist is a family farmer. We decide
our protagonist's goal is to save an endangered species
whose natural habitat is somewhere on the farmer's
property. However, our antagonist's farm is failing
and his only recourse to save his family is to sell
his property to a developer.
In this plot set-up, our protagonist and our antagonist
definitely have conflicting goals. The plot diagram,
as designed by screenwriter Michael Hauge, creates
a crucible. The diagram allows you to clearly see
that the protagonist and antagonist are directly in
conflict with each other; that they "push back" against
Beginning at the beginning
"What everyone is looking for on the first page (of
a book) is someone to attach to," Jenny says.
Therefore, she suggests writers introduce the protagonist
on the first page of the book. She goes further and
encourages writers to start the book with the protagonist
"The protagonist has to be introduced in trouble on
the first page," she says. "The beginning is where
the trouble starts."
As Jenny explains, Michael Hague notes the reader's
central question is, "Will your protagonist defeat
the antagonist and achieve his or her goal?"
"The book begins when the reader asks this (central)
question," Jenny says. "The book ends when the reader
has the answer."
To quote Aristotle, "The plot has a beginning, middle
and an end. The beginning is the part in which nothing
important happens before. The end is the part in which
nothing important happens after."
Standard plot outline:
* Exposition: story opens with a stable situation
* Rising action: something bad happens; story
rises to conflict or climax
* Climax: the point of no return
* Falling action: denouement
* Resolution: things become stable again; but
this is not the same stability as exposition,
suggests writers who have trouble plotting use a screenplay
structure, which is typically four acts, to help outline
"Don't write in chapters. Write in acts then split
the acts into chapters," she recommends.
Acts are made up of scenes, Jenny explains. The scenes
start where the trouble starts. Each scene is like
a mini chapter or a mini act. It has a protagonist
and an antagonist. Each scene should have its own
conflict making it a tiny, little story all to itself.
At the end of each scene, you should have a turning
point. The turning point of a scene in a scene sequence
is the place where the trouble starts in the next
scene. As the book progresses, your acts and scenes
should move closer together to make the pacing quicker.
Standard screenplay structure
Act 1 - Writer's goal: Establish
Introduce the protagonist and establish the reader's
relationship with her or him. Is she sympathetic?
Funny? Kind? Smart? Skilled? At this point, the heroine
is in trouble, but she has a plan. However, by the
end of the act, the stakes have increased and she
now should be thinking, "I was not expecting this.
I have a lot more to lose." She puts all of her energy
into finding a solution to the conflict. The turning
point should be life altering.
Act 2 - Writer's goal: Build
Create new and unexpected problems or complications
to increase the heroine's stakes. Force her to take
greater and greater actions in pursuit of her goal.
"(The stakes have) to be so great that she can't just
give up," Jenny explains. "From this point on, life
as she knows it is over."
Act 3 - Writer's goal: Intense Build
Increase the heroine's problems, complications and
reversals. At this point, the stakes are enormous.
She should hit a dark moment. Make the reader believe
she could lose everything. Build the conflict steadily
to the final confrontation.
Act 4 - Writer's goal: Resolve
At the beginning of this act, the protagonist is defeated.
"She's on her knees crawling toward the finish line,"
Jenny describes. Before the end of the act, she comes
face to face with the antagonist.
"It's not a rule," Jenny says. "But it's the ending
that's the most satisfying to the reader."
Resolve any and all subplots introduced in the first
act. The ending must be unambiguous and one the reader
accepts. Show the heroine in a new, stable situation.
"Readers will pull pieces of your story into a reserve
and if the pieces don't come together at the end,
it won't be considered a complete book," Jenny warns.
"The reason the people will love the book is what
happens in the last half dozen pages," Jenny says.
"That's what they'll remember."
Don't look down
"Write the first draft the way you need to write it,"
Jenny encourages. "Then you can go back and find the
turning points. You don't write them, you find them."
Jenny calls this mode of writing the Wyle E. Coyote
or "Don't Look Down" draft.
"You'll never again capture that wildness that you
have when writing the first draft," she says. "A lot
of stuff will be in there. The one thing I know about
writing is, whatever works is good. Never say, 'Boy,
that's stupid.' Nothing's stupid."
Jenny also suggests writers not target their manuscripts.
"The thing to do is find an editor who likes your
work and who can market it," she says.
Find out who edits books that are similar in style
to your own writing. Tell that editor about your book
- in about two sentences. If the editor seems interested
and enthusiastic about your book, ask if you can send
him or her your story.
"You want an editor who's a cheerleader," Jenny states.
"At that point, you start working on an relationship
Jenny recommends reading Linda Seger's Making a
Good Script Great and Robert
McKee's Story for additional information on
plotting and conflict development. She also recommends
attending one of Michael Hauge's screenwriting workshops
and/or listening his workshop tapes.
Crusie's latest novel, DON'T LOOK DOWN, a collaboration
with Bob Mayer, is an April 2006 release. Visit Jenny